Office: NRB 106
Phone: (905) 525-9140 ext. 27340
Fax: (905) 546-1252
Measuring the Elemental Composition of the Human Body
We develop and use techniques based in atomic and nuclear physics for non destructive elemental analysis of bulk samples. Specifically, we use x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis with the aim of finding out the elemental content of living human subjects. I work closely with Fiona McNeill on many of these projects and we both collaborate with Soo-Hyun Byun, particularly drawing on his expertise in nuclear instrumentation and pulse processing. These measurements involve ionising radiation (photons or neutrons) so a key preliminary to any proposed measurement is to ensure that the dose is acceptably low, typically well within the range employed by established medical diagnostic procedures.
The most widely applied of our techniques is the analysis of lead in bone using x-ray fluorescence. In this we collaborate with industry, with academic colleagues in the US and, in a study headed by Fiona McNeill, with Health Canada. Our work has contributed to a change in thinking about long term lead exposure, particularly highlighting the importance of endogenous exposure, that is what happens when lead stored over time in bone is released back into the body via the blood.
In another example, we recently completed a pilot study, using neutron activation to measure aluminum in bone of a group of people suffering from Alzheimer’s Disease and a comparison group with no signs of dementia.
Strontium seems to be ambiguous with regards to bone health. In excess it causes a rickets-like condition. However, people suffering from osteoporosis administered a strontium supplement had fewer fractures than a comparison group. We have developed an x-ray fluorescence method to measure strontium in bone and we are seeking to find ways (and funding!) to use this further in exploring the interaction of strontium with bone health.
I have a strong interest in the interaction between science and faith from the perspective of an activate participant in both communities. With colleagues I help to run the Hamilton Science and Faith Forum, the local chapter of the Canadian Scientific and Christian Affiliation.
H.K Mohseni, D. Cowan, D.R. Chettle, N.D. Priest, J. Atanackovic, S.H. Byun, W.V. Prestwich, "In vivo neutron activation study of the short-term kinetic behaviour of sodium and chlorine in the human hand" Physiological Measurement, 37, N76-N83, 2016.
Lord, M.L., McNeill, F.E., Gräfe, J.L., Noseworthy, M.D., Chettle, D.R. "A phantom- based feasibility study for detection of gadolinium in bone in-vivo using x-ray fluorescence" Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 112, 103-109, 2016.
H.K. Mohseni, D.R. Chettle, "A history of in vivo neutron activation analysis in measurement of aluminum in human subjects", Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 50, 913-926, 2016.
H.K. Mohseni, D. Cowan, D.R. Chettle, A.P. Milic, N. Priest, W. Matysiak, J. Atanackovic, S.H. Byun, W.V. Prestwich, "A pilot study measuring aluminum in bone in Alzheimer's Disease and control subjects using in vivo neutron activation analysis" Journal of Alzheimer's disease, 53, 933-942, 2016.
H. Moise, D.R. Chettle, A Pejović Milić, “Modeling elemental strontium in human bone based on in vivo x-ray fluorescence measurements in osteoporotic females self-supplementing with strontium citrate” Physiological Measurement, 37, 429-441, 2016.
K.P. Timmaraju, B.N. Fajurally, A.F. Armstrong, D.R. Chettle, “Development of a 170Tm source for mercury monitoring studies in humans using XRF”, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, accepted January 2016.
H. Shehab, E. Desouza, J. O’Meara, A. Pejović Milić, D. Chettle, D. Fleming, F. McNeill, “Feasibility of measuring arsenic and selenium in human skin using in vivo X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) – a comparison of methods” Physiological Measurement, 37, 145-161, 2015.
J.W. MacMillan, S. Behinaein, D.R. Chettle, M. Inskip, F.E. McNeill, W.I. Manton, N. Healey, M. Fisher, T.E. Arbuckle, D. Fleming, “Physiologically based modeling of lead kinetics: a pilot study using data from a Canadian population” Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 17, 2122-2133, 2015.
S.N.A. Tahir, D.R. Chettle, S.H. Byun, W.V. Prestwich, “Feasibility of measuring selenium in humans using in vivo neutron activation analysis” Physiological Measurement 36, 2217-2230, 2015.
J.L. Gräfe, D.R. Chettle, F.E. McNeill, “In vivo detection of samarium by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis: a comparison between experiment and Monte-Carlo simulation” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 2015.
S.N.A. Tahir, D.R. Chettle, “Identification of oxygen-19 during in vivo neutron activation analysis of water phantoms” Physiological Measurement 36, N127-N143, 2015.
A.K.O. Wong, K. Beattie, A. Bhargava, M. Cheung, C.E. Webber, D.R. Chettle, A. Papaioannou, J.D. Adachi, “Bone lead (Pb) content at the tibia is associated with thinner distal tibia cortices and lower volumetric bone density in postmenopausal women” Bone, 79, 58-64, 2015.
F. Mostafaei, F. E. McNeill, D. R. Chettle, M. D. Noseworthy, W.V. Prestwich, “The feasibility of in vivo quantification of bone-gadolinium in humans by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) following gadolinium-based contrast-enhanced MRI” Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 2015.
L.M. Egden, K. Nguyen, D.R. Chettle, R. Butler, M.J. Inskip, C.E. Webber, “X-ray fluorescence of archived bone samples: are raised Pb levels a chance finding or an association with Paget’s disease?” X-Ray Spectrometry, 44, 221-225, 2015.
C. Bhatia, S.H. Byun, D.R. Chettle, M.J. Inskip, W.V. Prestwich, “A neutron activation technique for manganese measurements in human”, Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 31, 204-208, 2015.
F. Mostafaei, F.E. McNeill, D.R. Chettle, B.C. Wainman, A.E. Pidruczny, W.V. Prestwich, “Measurements of fluoride in contemporary urban Canadians: a comparison of the levels found in human bone using in vivo and ex vivo neutron activation analysis” Physiological Measurement, 36, 465-487, 2015.
F. Mostafaei, F.E. McNeill, D.R. Chettle, W. Matysiak, C. Bhatia, W.V. Prestwich, “An investigation of the neutron flux in bone-fluorine phantoms comparing accelerator based in vivo neutron activation analysis and FLUKA simulation data” Nuclear Instruments and Methods B, 342, 249-257, 2015.
F. Mostafaei, F. E. McNeill, D. R. Chettle, M. D. Noseworthy, “A feasibility study of in vivo detection of gadolinium by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) following gadolinium-based contrast-enhanced MRI” Physiological Measurement, 36, N1 - N13, 2015.
S. Behinaein, D.R. Chettle, L. Marro, M. Malowany, M. Fisher, D. E.B. Fleming, N. Healey, M. Inskip, T.E. Arbuckle, F.E. McNeill, “Factors influencing uncertainties of in vivo bone lead measurement using a 109Cd K x- ray fluorescence clover leaf geometry detector system” Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 16, 2742-2751, 2014.
J. Gräfe, F. McNeill, M. Noseworthy, D. Chettle, “Gadolinium detection via in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis following gadolinium-based contrast agent injection: a pilot study in 10 human participants" Physiological Measurement, 35, 1861-1872, 2014.
S. Behinaein, D.R. Chettle, L.M. Egden, F.E. McNeill, G. Norman, N. Richard, S. Stever, “The estimation of the rates of lead exchange between body compartments of smelter employees” Environmental Science: Processes and Impacts 16, 1705-1715, 2014.
H. Moise, D.R. Chettle, A Pejović Milić, “Monitoring Bone Strontium Intake in Osteoporotic Females Self-Supplementing with Strontium Citrate with a Novel In-Vivo X-Ray Fluorescence Based Diagnostic Tool” Bone 61, 48-54, 2014.
Current Graduate Students
Michelle Lord, PhD (Medical Physics) (co-supervised by Dr. Fiona McNeill)
Phanisree Timmaraju, PhD (Medical Physics)
Dave Tucker, PhD (Medical Physics), part-time
Jaemin Park (co-supervised by Dr. William Prestwich)
Former Graduate Students
Stephen Smith, MSc (Health & Radiation Physics), 2016
Hedieh Katalmohseni, PhD (Medical Physics), 2016
Lesley Egden, PhD (Medical Physics), 2015
Syed Tahir, MSc (Medical Physics), 2015
Helen Moise, PhD (Medical Physics), 2014
Koteswara Veeranki, MSc (Health & Radiation Physics), 2013
Sepideh Behinaein, PhD (Medical Physics) 2013
MedPhys 4B03/6B03: Radioactivity and Radiation Interactions
MedPhys 3C03: Operational Health Physics: Laboratory and Communications
MedPhys 4T03: Clinical Applications of Physics in Medicine (Fall 2016)
Physics 1E03: Waves, Electricity and Magnetic Fields